• Sacchi et al. (2007) Changing history: doctored photographs affect memory for past public events.


  • Sacchi et al. (2007) used more females than males which is not representative of the wider population. The sample consisted of 187 undergraduates, of which 31 were male and 156 were female, with an age range of 19 to 39 and a mean age of 22.3 years. It is gender biased, limiting generalisability
  • The original photographs were real-life events. Two well-known photographs were used, such as the Beijing image of a student standing in front of tanks in Tiananmen Square. This increases task validity as images of events are commonly used to record events
  • Participants completed ratings of the photographs using three sets of multiple choice questionnaires including manipulation checks, critical questions and attitude questions. When completing the self-report questionnaires participants may not have given valid answers about their attitudes due to social desirability to give socially acceptable views of the historic event.
  • Participants viewed either two original photos, two doctored photos, the doctored Beijing photo and original Rome photo, the original Beijing photo and doctored Rome photo. By randomising the combinations of the photographs order effects can be eliminated, such as fatigue which may influence ability to concentrate on the image.

Past Paper Questions

1 Marker
  • State one aim from your contemporary study. (1) October 2017
2 Markers
  • Explain one weakness of your contemporary study. (2) October 2017
  • Describe the sample of participants from your chosen contemporary study. (2) October 2019
  • Describe the results from your chosen contemporary study. (2) October 2019
3 Marker
  • Describe the procedure of your chosen contemporary study. (3) October 2018
4 Markers
  • Explain one strength and one weakness of this contemporary study. (4) October 2018
  • Explain two weaknesses, other than the sample of participants, of your chosen contemporary study. (4) October 2019
8 Marker
  • Evaluate your chosen contemporary study. (8) January 2020